Aerial observation of feeding behavior in four baleen whales: On the external characters and biology of Bryde’s whale (, Seasonality and distribution of whale calls in the North Pacific, Biogeographic characterisation of blue whale song worldwide : using song to identify populations, The social and reproductive biology of humpback whales: an ecological perspective, Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication, Acoustic and behavioural changes by fin whales (, Effects of airgun sounds on bowhead whale calling rates in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, Seismic surveys negatively affect humpback whale singing activity off northern Angola, Effects of airgun sounds on bowhead whale calling rates: evidence for two behavioral thresholds, http://hkmarinelife.hk/2014/12/23/taipo-whale-identified-as-recently-discovered-omuras-whale/, http://www.pbase.com/wildlifeimages/omuras_whale, http://podaac-ftp.jpl.nasa.gov/OceanTemperature/ghrsst/data/L4/GLOB/JPL_OUROCEAN/G1SST/, www.birds.cornell.edu/brp/raven/RavenOverview, http://commons.nmu.edu/facwork_datasets/1/, http://www.oilandgastechnology.net/upstream-news/sterling-extends-exploration-licence-madagascar-offshore-blocks, http://www.puravidaenergy.com.au/operations/madagascar/, https://www.marinemammalscience.org/about-us/ethics/marine-mammal-treatment-guidelines/, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. It’s like the difference between coyotes and wolves, if you didn’t know they were two species, he said. “I think most of us whale scientists expected that it would have a small, relatively localized population,” he wrote. To survey along the coastal zone (particularly around Nosy Be, 2007–2012), transects parallel to the coasts were employed to effectively cover shallow-water coastal habitat. A phylogenetic reconstruction that would make this a parsimonious explanation would place B. physalus nested outside and basal to the Bryde’s/sei/Omura’s whale clade, and therefore inferring a single evolution and then a single consequent loss of the complex set of characters. Best [39] (citing [47]) also reports the catch of an ‘abnormal’ Bryde’s whale landed at the Durban whaling station on the southeastern coast of South Africa with asymmetrical coloration similar to a B. physalus, many cookie cutter scars, and a length of 14.95 m; despite the pigmentation asymmetry, the other descriptions do not match that of B. omurai as observed in Madagascar.

Similar to their ruminant relatives, as well as their sister taxa Hippopotamidae, the bowhead whale stomach is a multichambered organ and highly distensible to accommodate seasonally abundant and/or patchy prey aggregations. In regards to directed takes, it is known to have been taken in Japanese research whaling in small numbers [1,5], as well as shore-based Philippine artisanal whaling in the Bohol Sea [8,12] in numbers which may have been substantial in comparison to population size. bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) with respect to respiration, degluti-tion, and vocalization. To estimate sea surface temperature (SST) at encounter positions, daily blended global 1 km sea surface temperature (G1SST) images [26] were downloaded from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Regional Ocean Modeling System group (http://podaac-ftp.jpl.nasa.gov/OceanTemperature/ghrsst/data/L4/GLOB/JPL_OUROCEAN/G1SST/). Spectrograms of recordings with calls attributed to Balaenoptera omurai showing (a) a stereotyped, amplitude-modulated pulsative call at 15–50 Hz, recorded on two separate days assumed to be from different individuals, (b) 10 min clip of a rhythmic series of calls with consistent 170–180 s repetition rate, interpreted as uttered by a single individual, and (c) 10 min clip of what appears to be a chorus of four individuals inferred from overlapping rhythmic series with different apparent received levels, including two animals in the foreground (labelled ‘1’, red and ‘2’, blue) and two animals in the background (labelled ‘3’, green and ‘4’, magenta); stereotyped, rhythmically repetitive vocalizations uttered in choruses of different individuals suggest song-like characteristics and function. In either case, a non-migratory, tropical/subtropical ecology is rare among mysticetes and in the minority among Balaenopteridae. The ventral grooves extend beyond the umbilicus and number approximately 80–90, which is diagnostic in comparison to Bryde’s whales having 42–54 grooves, at least for B. asymmetrical black and white markings on the head and jaw. Visible features: (A) asymmetrical coloration of the lower jaw, with lightly pigmented right jaw and darkly pigmented left jaw; (B) asymmetrical coloration of the gape (inferred by inner lower lip), with lightly pigmented left gape and darkly pigmented right gape; (C) leading edge of pectoral fin white from tip to shoulder; (D) the apparent absence of lateral rostral ridges, with only faint indications detectable at some angles; (E) lightly pigmented blaze originating anterior to the eye, present only on the right side, with dark eye and ear stripe, two additional dark stripes and a light inter-stripe wash; (F) lightly pigmented chevron anterior to dorsal fin, present on both sides but asymmetrical and most prominent on right where it displays a double banded pattern; (G) highly falcate dorsal fin with gradual sloping insertion into dorsum.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPointFigure 4. [2] later described in greater detail the molecular phylogenetic placement of the species using the complete mtDNA genome and short interspersed repetitive elements, establishing it as an ancient lineage with an estimated divergence time of 17.0±2.7 Ma from the B. edeni/B. They had previously been mistaken for Bryde’s whales as both species look similar, are small, and live in tropical seas.