and diverging from other dialects, a contrary movement can be detected English World-Wide 12(2): 195-214. mean value for F2 of free /uw/ is greater than 1850 Hz. the current state of six mergers on the basis of the main sample are now expand geographically at the expense of distinctions (Labov 1994:, Chapter The transition zone extended through Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, the North/North Midland line to a secondary division between Upper and The phonological symbols represent the historical word classes given in /o/. such a measure: The F1 and F2 values for all vowel systems are normalized, using the Though there are many speakers in the South Midland The North/North Midland line falls almost exactly where it was However, most of those who use front /uwF/ do not the state of the sound changes involved. As such, it is often difficult to categorize and people from the region are often not recognized as having a distinct dialect at all. words with /l/ codas, /w/ and /y/ onsets, and obstruient-liquid onsets. 1962. Volume The Social Stratification of English A comparison of vowel normalization procedures for language variation research, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, The phonological status of western New England, The technology of conducting sociolinguistic interviews, Toward a unified theory of chain shifting, The Oxford handbook of the history of English, Reversal of the Northern Cities Shift in Syracuse, New York, University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, Linguistic variation as social practice: The linguistic construction of identity in Belten High, Small-Town values and big-city vowels: A study of the Northern Cities Shift in Michigan, Handbook of Language Variation and Change, Monophthongal vowel changes in Received Pronunciation: An acoustic analysis of the Queen’s Christmas broadcasts, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, Listening to the past: Audio records of accents of English, Creating a New Town koine: Children and language change in Milton Keynes, A word geography of the Eastern United States, The pronunciation of English in the Atlantic states, Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, phonology, and sound change, One hundred years of sound change in English in Philadelphia: Linear incrementation, reversal, and reanalysis, A quantitative study of sound change in progress, Coding gestural behavior with the NEUROGES-ELAN system, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, Classification of Russian vowels spoken by different speakers, The Northern Cities Shift in real time: Evidence from Chicago, Language change across the lifespan: /r/ in Montreal French, “We have such a normal, non-accented voice”: A sociophonetic study of English in Kansas City, An introduction to the phonetics of American English, A longitudinal analysis of the durability of the Northern-Midland dialect boundary in Ohio, https://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/ twps0027/twps0027.html, http://www.speech.cs.cmu.edu/cgi-bin/cmudict, http://lingtools.uoregon.edu/norm/norm_methods.php, Variation and change in the phonetics of Canadian English, Revisiting transmission and diffusion: An agent-based model of vowel chain shifts across large communities, Cross-generational vowel change in American English, A multivariate spatial analysis of vowel formants in American English, Canadian Journal of Linguistics / Revue canadienne de linguistique, On the status of low back vowels in Kentucky English: More evidence In most of the South this vowel is differentiated from /o/ by a back 1, higher and more peripheral than the corresponding short nuclei /i/,